The Battle of Langfang: boxers fighting the Eight-Nation Alliance

An Eight-Nation Alliance sent the Seymour Expedition of Japanese, Russian, British, Italian, German, French, American, and Austrian troops to relieve the siege, but they were forced to retreat by Boxer and Qing troops at the Battle of Langfang.

Han-Manchu marriages and its historical significance

The Qing victory was overwhelmingly the result of the defection of the Ming dynasty's Liaodong military establishment and other defectors, with the Manchu military playing a very minor role. 

Empress Dowager Cixi: listening to politics behind the curtains

For many years, the mainstream view of Empress Dowager Cixi was that she was devious despot who contributed in no small part to China's slide into corruption, anarchy, and revolution. Cixi used her power...

Qing Dynasty

The Qing dynasty (1644–1911) was the last imperial dynasty in China. Founded by the Manchus, it was the second conquest dynasty to rule the entire territory of China and its people. The Manchus were...

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