Government of the Han Dynasty

If the emperor rejected a court conference decision, he risked alienating his high ministers. Nevertheless, emperors sometimes did reject the majority opinion reached at court conferences.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms

The period of political disunity between the Tang and the Song, known as the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, lasted from 907 to 960. During this half-century, China was in all respects a...

Archaeological discoveries of the Xia Dynasty

Archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia dynasty at locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. There exists a debate as to whether...

Empress Dowager Cixi: listening to politics behind the curtains

For many years, the mainstream view of Empress Dowager Cixi was that she was devious despot who contributed in no small part to China's slide into corruption, anarchy, and revolution. Cixi used her power...

Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia dynasties

In 960, the Song dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu, with its capital established in Kaifeng (also known as Bianjing). In 979, the Song dynasty reunified most of the China proper, while large swaths...

Eastern Depot and the Embroidered Uniform Guard

Dong Chang (东厂), translated as Eastern Depot, was a Ming dynasty spy and secret police agency run by eunuchs. It was created by the Yongle Emperor. After the Yongle Emperor usurped the throne in 1402...

The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project

The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project (夏商周断代工程) was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties....

Northern and Southern dynasties

In the early 5th century, China entered a period known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, in which parallel regimes ruled the northern and southern halves of the country. In the south, the Eastern Jin gave way to the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and finally Chen.

Religious worships of the Shang Dynasty

The Shang dynasty is the earliest dynasty of traditional Chinese history supported by archaeological evidence. The Shang religion was characterized by a combination of animism, the idea that everything has a soul; shamanism, the belief in shamans...

Mawangdui

awangdui (马王堆; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty

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