Although the oldest surviving textual examples of surviving ci (词) or lyric poetry are from 8th century CE Dunhuang manuscripts, beginning in the poetry of the Liang Dynasty, the ci followed the tradition of the Shi Jing and the yuefu: they were lyrics which developed from anonymous popular songs into a sophisticated literary genre; although in the case of the ci form some of its fixed-rhythm patterns have an origin in Central Asia.

The form was further developed in the Tang Dynasty. Although the contributions of Li Bo (also known as Li Po, 701 – 762) are fraught with historical doubt, certainly the Tang poet Wen Tingyun (812-870) was a great master of the ci, writing it in its distinct and mature form. One of the more notable practitioners and developers of this form was Li Yu of the Southern Tang Dynasty during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

However, the ci form of Classical Chinese poetry is especially associated with the poetry of the Song Dynasty, during which it was indeed a popular poetic form.

A revival of the ci poetry form occurred during the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty which was characterized by an exploration of the emotions connected with romantic love together with its valorization, often in a context of a brief poetic story narrative within a ci poem or a linked group of ci poems in an application of the chuanqi form of short story tales to poetry.

Two main categories of ci employed in Song Dynasty were xiǎolìng 小令 (the original form since Pre-Song) and màncí 慢詞 (starting after Liu Yong), depending on the song being either short and in fast tempo or long and in slow tempo.

Later in Ming Dynasty and Qing Dyansties, the ci, or rather the cipai, are classified for the number of characters it dictates. It’s called xiǎolìng 小令 if it’s no more than 58 characters, zhōngdiào 中調 for 59-90, and chángdiào 長調 for over 90. If the ci appears in one stanza, it’s called dāndiào 單調, mostly xiǎolìng written in Pre-Song era. The largest majority is shuāngdiào 雙調 with two stanzas or qüè 闋 in identical or nearly identical patterns. There also are rare cases of sāndié 三疊 and sìdié 四疊, for three and four qüè, respectively.

In terms of style, ci can also be classified as either wǎnyuē 婉約 (grace) or háofàng 豪放 (bold).


To the Tune of Riverside City – For ten years here I wander and there you lie

  • 「十年生死兩茫茫。不思量,自難忘。千里孤墳,無處話淒涼。縱使相逢應不識,塵滿面、鬢如霜。 夜來幽夢忽還鄉。小軒窗,正梳妝。相顧無言,惟有淚千行。料得年年腸斷處:明月夜,短松岡。」
    “For ten years here I wander and there you lie./ I don’t think about you often,/ yet how can I forget you!/ With your grave a thousand miles away,/ where can I confide my loneliness?/ Even if we met, could you recognize me,/ with dust all over my face/ and hair like frost?/ Last night I had a dream in which I returned home./ By the window,/ you were combing your hair./ We looked at each other silently,/ with tears streaming down our cheeks./ There’s a place which every year will be my misery:/ the moonlit night,/ the hill of short pines. 「Su Shi, 《江城子·十年生死兩茫茫》,蘇軾」

In the title of this ci, “the Tune of Riverside City” is the cipai, followed by the first sentence of the poem. Su Shi got married when he was 19, his wife 16. His wife died when she was only 27. Because of his government duties, Su Shi had moved to many different places in China, all far away from his hometown. One night in early 1075, about 10 years after her death, Su Shi dreamed of his wife, then composed this famous ci.

Edited from Wikipedia


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here