Women in the Tang Dynasty

The Tang dynasty has been described as a golden age for women, in contrast to the Neo-Confucianism of the Song dynasty that saw practices like foot-binding, widow suicide, and widow chastity become socially normative. This...

Roads, bridges, and canals of the Han Dynasty

In order to facilitate commerce and communication as well as speed the process of tax collection and movement of military troops, the Han government sponsored the building of new roads, bridges, and canal waterways. These...

Agriculture of Han Dynasty

Tools and methods Modern archaeologists have unearthed Han iron farming tools throughout China, from Inner Mongolia in the north to Yunnan in the south. The spade, shovel, pick, and plow were used for tillage, the hoe...

Bao Zheng

Bao Zheng (包拯; 11 April 999 – 20 May 1062), commonly known as Bao Gong (包公, "Lord Bao"), was a government officer during the reign of Emperor Renzong in China's Song Dynasty. During his...

Yellow Turban Rebellion

The Yellow Turban Rebellion was a peasant revolt in China against the Han dynasty. The uprising broke out in the year 184 during the reign of Emperor Ling. It took 21 years until the uprising...

Empress Dowager Cixi: listening to politics behind the curtains

For many years, the mainstream view of Empress Dowager Cixi was that she was devious despot who contributed in no small part to China's slide into corruption, anarchy, and revolution. Cixi used her power...

Eastern Depot and the Embroidered Uniform Guard

Dong Chang (东厂), translated as Eastern Depot, was a Ming dynasty spy and secret police agency run by eunuchs. It was created by the Yongle Emperor. After the Yongle Emperor usurped the throne in 1402...
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The Secret Tomb of China’s 1st Emperor: Will We Ever See Inside?

Buried deep under a hill in central China, surrounded by an underground moat of poisonous mercury, lies an entombed emperor who's been undisturbed for more than two millennia. The tomb holds the secrets of China's...

Why Did Han China Collapse?

The Han Dynasty (206 BCE - 221 CE) ruled over such a pivotal era in the history of China that the majority ethnic group in the country still refer to themselves as "the people...

Archaeological discoveries of the Xia Dynasty

Archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the possible existence of the Xia dynasty at locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. There exists a debate as to whether...
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