Debate on Travels of Marco Polo

An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published editions of his book either rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or...

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove

The Seven Sages are Ji Kang, Liu Ling, Ruan Ji, Ruan Xian, Xiang Xiu, Wang Rong and Shan Tao.  (阮籍、嵇康、山涛、刘伶、阮咸、向秀、王戎). The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (also known as the Seven Worthies of the...

Quotes of Xun Zi

Xún Zǐ or Hsün Tzu (荀子 or 荀况; born Zhao c.312 BC - 230 BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher. Quotes The person attempting to travel two roads at once will get nowhere. Quoted in:...

Sima Qian: the Grand Historian

Sima Qian (c. 145 or 135 – 86 BC) was a Chinese historian of the Han dynasty. He is considered the father of Chinese historiography for his Records of the Grand Historian. Although the style and form of...

The History of Anyang City

Anyang city is an ancient city with a history of over 3,000 years and is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, and also one of the best preserved. It is one of...
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The lady buried at Mawangdui

Mawangdui ( 马王堆; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty (206...
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Evaluation of Emperor Wu Zetian

Quotes The traditional Chinese historical view on Wu Zetian generally was mixed—admiring her for her abilities in governing the state, but vilifying her for her actions in seizing imperial power. Luo Binwang even wrote along...

Three Departments and Six Ministries

The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central administrative structure adopted in Imperial China. While its separate departments first took shape during the Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), it...

Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven (天命) was a principle used to justify the power of the emperor of China, as well as explaining suitability for the office. According to this belief, heaven bestows its mandate...

Zhou Dunyi

Zhou Dunyi (Chinese: 周敦頤;1017–1073) was a Song dynasty Chinese Neo-Confucian philosopher and cosmologist. He conceptualized the Neo-Confucian cosmology of the day, explaining the relationship between human conduct and universal forces. In this way, he...
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