Cultural Legacy of Cao Cao

While historical records indicate Cao Cao as a brilliant ruler, he was represented as a cunning and deceitful man in Chinese opera, where his character is given a white facial makeup to reflect his...

Huo Qubing: Young General of Military Might

Under the reign of Emperor Wu (武) of Han, the Han Dynasty (漢朝) (206 B.C.–A.D. 220) saw a vast territorial expansion as well as a strong and centralized government. Although the nomadic Xiongnu were a...

皋陶謨 – Counsels of Gao-yao

Examining into antiquity, (we find that) Gao-Yao said, 'If (the sovereign) sincerely pursues the course of his virtue, the counsels (offered to him) will be intelligent, and the aids (of admonition that he receives)...

Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven (天命) was a principle used to justify the power of the emperor of China, as well as explaining suitability for the office. According to this belief, heaven bestows its mandate...

Lin Zexu and the destruction of opium

Lin Zexu (30 August 1785 – 22 November 1850), was a Chinese scholar-official of the Qing dynasty best known for his role in the First Opium War of 1839–42. Lin became Governor-General of Hunan and...

Legalism in Chinese History

Qin unification of 221 BCE could have become the triumph of Legalism. The rise of the state of Qin started with Shang Yang; and it was by following his “agriculture cum warfare” course of...

Li Shizhen and his Compendium

Li Shizhen (李時珍, July 3, 1518  – 1593),  was a Han Chinese polymath, medical doctor, scientist, pharmacologist, herbalist and acupuncturist of the Ming dynasty. His major contribution to clinical medicine was his 27-year work,...

舜典 – Canon of Shun

Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Di Shun was styled Chong-hua. His character was entirely conformed to (that of) the (former) Di, he was profound, wise, accomplished, and intelligent. He was mild and...
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The lady buried at Mawangdui

Mawangdui ( 马王堆; literally: "King Ma's Mound") is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. The site consists of two saddle-shaped hills and contained the tombs of three people from the western Han dynasty (206...

大禹謨 – Counsels of the Great Yu

Examining into antiquity, (we find that) the Great Yu was styled Wen-ming. Having arranged and divided (the land), all to the four seas, in reverent response to the Di, he said, 'If the sovereign...
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