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Xuanzang’s pilgrimage

The Buddhist monk Xuanzang (玄奘, 602–664 ) became famous for his seventeen-year overland journey to India, which is recorded in detail in the classic Chinese text Great Tang Records on the Western Regions, which in...

The technical encyclopedia of the Tiangong Kaiwu

The Tiangong Kaiwu (天工開物), or The Exploitation of the Works of Nature was a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Song Yingxing. It was published in May 1637 with funding provided by Song's patron Tu Shaokui. The...

History walks into future

  We live in a world of constant changes. History is a mirror. To know about the future and what actions we should take, we should first have an understanding of the past. Every person...

Debate on Travels of Marco Polo

An authoritative version of Marco Polo's book does not and cannot exist, for the early manuscripts differ significantly. The published editions of his book either rely on single manuscripts, blend multiple versions together, or...

Common people in the Qing Dynasty

The most significant fact of early and mid-Qing social history was population growth. The population doubled during the 18th century. People in this period were also remarkably on the move. There is evidence suggesting...

Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove

The Seven Sages are Ji Kang, Liu Ling, Ruan Ji, Ruan Xian, Xiang Xiu, Wang Rong and Shan Tao.  (阮籍、嵇康、山涛、刘伶、阮咸、向秀、王戎). The Seven Sages of the Bamboo Grove (also known as the Seven Worthies of the...

Quotes of Xun Zi

Xún Zǐ or Hsün Tzu (荀子 or 荀况; born Zhao c.312 BC - 230 BC) was a Chinese Confucian philosopher. Quotes The person attempting to travel two roads at once will get nowhere. Quoted in:...

Life and Society of Song Dynasty

The Song dynasty was an era of administrative sophistication and complex social organization. Some of the largest cities in the world were found in China during this period (Kaifeng and Hangzhou had populations of over...

Big bad wolf

“HAD Mao died in 1956, his achievements would have been immortal. Had he died in 1966, he would still have been a great man but flawed. But he died in 1976. Alas, what can...

Mandate of Heaven

The Mandate of Heaven (天命) was a principle used to justify the power of the emperor of China, as well as explaining suitability for the office. According to this belief, heaven bestows its mandate...
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